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Background: India's maternal mortality rate is high and contributes one-fifth of global deaths occurring due to preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Though the Maternal Mortality Ratio has dropped from 212 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2007 to 130 deaths in 2014-16, it still remains a matter of concern.1,2 The most frequent cause of maternal mortality is haemorrhage which accounts for 25-30% of maternal mortality and postpartum haemorrhage accounts for 15-25% of maternal deaths in India.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-umbilical vein injection of oxytocin and intramuscular injection of oxytocin in minimizing the blood loss and duration of third stage of labour.
Materials and methods: A hospital based comparative study was conducted on 268 subjects over the period of two years. The subjects were then randomly divided into two groups of 134 subjects each; group 1: received 10 units of intra-umbilical oxytocin diluted in 20ml of saline and group 2 received intramuscular injection of 10 units of oxytocin. Blood loss was measured in milliliters with the help of specialized drapes called "Brass V drapes", duration of third stage of labour was noted in minutes. Two groups were compared on the basis of blood loss (ml) and duration (minutes).
Results: The mean duration of third stage of labour in group 1 was significantly lesser as compared to group 2 (4.89 ñ 1.50 minutes vs. 5.79 ñ 2.20 minutes). The mean blood loss in third stage of labour in group 1 was significantly lesser as compared to group 2 (94.64 ñ 43.38 ml vs. 120.42 ñ 43.41 ml).
Conclusions: Intra-umbilical vein injection of oxytocin is more efficient in decreasing the duration of the third stage of labour and minimizing the blood loss associated with it as compared to conventional intramuscular injection of oxytocin. Intra-umbilical route is painless, safer, easier and faster acting than intramuscular injection of oxytocin
Keywords: Intra-umbilical; AMTSL; Postpartum haemorrhage; Brass V drapes